Must Knows

 Vocabulary

Genocide: “a term created during the Holocaust and declared an international crime in the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The Convention defines genocide as any of the following acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

a. Killing members of the group;
b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
c. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
d. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
e. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

The specific “intent to destroy” particular groups is unique to genocide. A closely related category of international law, crimes against humanity, is defined as widespread or systematic attacks against civilians.”

Anti-Semitism: “‘Opposition to and discrimination against Jews”

Death Camp: “Nazi extermination centers where Jews and other victims were brought to be killed as part of Hitler’s Final Solution”

Ghetto: “The Nazis revived the medieval term ghetto to describe their device of concentration and control, the compulsory “Jewish Quarter.” Ghettos were usually established in the poor sections of a city, where most of the Jews from the city and surrounding areas were subsequently forced to reside. Often surrounded by barbed wire or walls, the ghettos were sealed. Established mostly in eastern Europe (e.g., Lodz, Warsaw, Vilna, Riga, or Minsk), the ghettos were characterized by overcrowding, malnutrition, and heavy labor. All were eventually dissolved, and the Jews murdered.”

Holocaust: “Derived from the Greek holokauston which meant a sacrifice totally burned by fire. Today, the term refers to the systematic planned extermination of about six million European Jews and millions of others by the Nazis between 1933-1945.”

Jews:  “Hebrew, Israelite; a person belonging to the worldwide group claiming descent from Jacob (or converted to it) and connected by cultural or religious ties”

Krakow: “Cracow; an industrial city in southern Poland on the Vistula- a republic in central Europe; the invasion of Poland by Germany in 1939 started World War II”

Nazi: “1. A member of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power in 1933 under Adolf Hitler. 2. often nazi adherent or advocate of policies characteristic of Nazism; a fascist. 3. Of, relating to, controlled by, or typical of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. 4. Derogatory anyone who thinks or acts like a Nazi, esp showing racism, brutality, etc.”

Nazism: “The ideology and practice of the Nazis, especially the policy of racist nationalism, national expansion, and state control of the economy.”

Nuremberg Laws: “The Nuremberg Laws were announced by Hitler at the Nuremberg Party conference, defining “Jew” and systematizing and regulating discrimination and persecution. The “Reich Citizenship Law” deprived all Jews of their civil rights, and the “Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor” made marriages and extra-marital sexual relationships between Jews and Germans punishable by imprisonment.”

Poland: “A country in central Europe; heavily populated by Jews”

World War II: “A war fought from 1939 to 1945, in which Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, the United States, China, and other allies defeated Germany, Italy, and Japan.”

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